Because of Europe's migratory pressures and terrorist attacks over the last few years,border managementhas become a priority for the European Commission.
The Visa Information System (VIS) has been operational since 2015 in Member State consulates, and its consultation is now compulsory for visa-holders entering the Schengen area.
Besides, since February 2013, the concept of Smart Borders has been introduced. It's an ambitious package of legislative measures drawn up in consultation with the European Parliament.
The Entry/Exit System, in particular, will create a unified information system for recording data on the entry and exit movements of short-stay Third Country Nationals crossing the external borders of the EU.
The newEESSystem to be operational in 2022
Adopted and then signed on 30 November 2017 by the European Council, it will be used in conjunction with the European Passenger Name Record (PNR) Directive, which, from 25 May 2018, collects data on air passengers.
Based on the principle that the majority of visitors are "bona fide," the EES will radically change the Schengen Borders Code with the double objective of:
- making borders smart by automating checks and controls on legitimate visitors while strengthening methods for combating irregular migration
- creating a central register of cross-border movements.
In other words, external border management is being modernised.
Because it improves the quality and efficiency of checks and controls in the Schengen area, the EES's common database should help reinforce homeland security and the fight against terrorism and serious crime.
Systematic identification of people 'overstaying' in the Schengen area is one of its significant challenges.
We will see why facial biometrics, in particular, is the technical winner of the EES initiative, as is currently the case, and no longer just in airports but also in all ports of entry.
In this web report, we will examine the following six topics:
- What the Entry-Exit System is
- How the 2006 Schengen Borders Code is impacted
- How its access is highly regulated
- Why facial biometrics becomes key for the EES
- How EES contributes to the fight against identity fraud
- Where Thales fits in the picture.
Let's dig in.
EES: a robust prevention and detection mechanism
Criminal activities such as human trafficking, migrant smuggling, and trafficking of goods are made possible by illegal border crossings.
They are primarily facilitated by the absence of any system for recording entry/exit movements in Europe.
Yes, you read that right.
And the route to identity fraud is a well-travelled one: "standard" checks on entering the Schengen area, followed by the destruction of identity documents to commit malevolent acts, knowing that authentication without an ID is impossible.
So the good news is that although the EES is aimed at "bona fide" visitors, in the long term, the system will act as a powerful means of preventing and detecting terrorist activities or other serious criminal offences.
The data stored in the new register for five years – including for people turned back at borders – mainly consists of:
- passport numbers,
- Four fingerprints
- and photos.
It will be accessible to border and visa granting authorities and Europol.
The system will be made available to investigating authorities to allow consultation of cross-border movements and access to travel history data.
All of this will be carried out with the strictest respect for the person's human dignity and integrity.
The mechanism is very clear on this point: the competent authorities cannot discriminate against persons based on sex, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion.
Investigations must also not discriminate against membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age, or sexual orientation.
Reappraisal of the Schengen Borders Code
Given the expected growth in the number of Third Country Nationals visiting the Schengen area (887M by 2025), the challenge is now to make border checks faster and simpler.
This is a particularly ambitious initiative. It will require a reappraisal of the famous Schengen Borders Code, which requires thorough checks made manually by Member State authorities at entry and exit points, without the possibility of automation.
Besides, the Schengen Borders Code has no provisions on the recording of cross-border movements. The current procedure requires only that passports be stamped with entry and exit dates.
This is the sole method available to border guards when calculating whether a right to stay has been exceeded.
Just think about it.
It's not easy when stamps are poorly printed and placed randomly throughout the passport book. Besides, a stamp can be counterfeited, and there is no electronic record in any database.
Another problem is that regular visitors and people living near borders have to replace their passports every 2 to 3 months because they run out of space for new stamps!
Let's admit it.
The whole process is archaic, given the potential offered by information technologies.
The 2013 package consisted of three proposals:
- Creation of an automated Entry/Exit System (EES)
- A Registered Traveler Program (RTP) to allow pre-vetted regular visitors to benefit from the facilitation of border checks.
- Amendment of the Schengen Borders Code
Withdrawal of the RTP initiative
Proving to be too complex to implement in the 28 Member States, the RTP initiative was eventually withdrawn and replaced by an ambitious Entry/Exit System (EES) for short-stay visitors (no more than 90 days in any period of 180 days).
The final outlay is well below that initially forecast by the Commission in 2013. Instead of the estimated billion euros, which also included an RTP component, the revised proposal of a single EES will cost "only" €480 million as the EES regulation proposalsingled out.
This ambitious initiative is being implemented after a technical study conducted in 2014, followed by a prototyping phase led by the eu-LISA agency in 2015, which resulted in the withdrawal of the RTP project and a switch of focus to the EES program.
Centralised architecture managed by eu-LISA
The essential body of the EES iseu-LISA, the European agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems, headquartered in Tallinn, with an active site in Strasbourg and a backup site in Sankt Johann Im Pongau (Austria).
The agency will be responsible for the following four tasks:
- Development of the central system
- Implementation of a National Uniform Interface (NUI) in each Member State
- Secure communication between the EES and VIS central systems
- Communication infrastructure between the central system and National Uniform Interfaces.
Each Member State will be responsible for the organisation, management, operation and maintenance of its existing national border infrastructure and its connection to the EES.
Optimised border management
All Third Country Nationals will be treated equally with the new mechanism, whether they are visa-exempt.
Simply stated: the VIS already records visitors requiring visas. And the EES aims to create a database for all others.
Therefore, the Member States willidentify any irregular migrant or visitor who has crossed borders illegally and facilitate their expulsion if applicable.
The process can be assisted or automated; for instance, visitors could authenticate themselves at a self-service terminal under the supervision of a border guard, which will display the following information:
- Date, time, and border crossing point, in replacement of manual stamps
- Notification of refusal of entry if applicable
- Maximum authorised length of stay
- Notification of overstay if applicable
For the authorities of Member States, this is a revolutionary step up from the current system's inadequacies.
The possibility of compiling robust statistics are already being anticipated, as is better management of granting or refusal of visas based on cross-border movements, in particular through information such as:
- Overstays per country
- History of cross-border movements per country
The Visa Information System (VIS) has been operational since 2015
EES: highly regulated access
But one thing's for sure.
Access to the EES is highly regulated.
Each Member State must notify eu-LISA of the law enforcement agencies authorised to consult data to prevent, detect, or investigate terrorist offences and other serious crimes.
Europol, which plays a crucial role in crime prevention, will be included in the law enforcement agencies authorised to access the system within the framework of its tasks.
In contrast, EES data cannot be transferred or made available to any third country, international organisation, or private entity established in or outside the European Union.
Of course, in the case of investigations to identify a Third Country National and prevent or detect terrorist offences, exceptions may be made.
Proportionality and privacy
Against a legislative backdrop where privacy is held as a major priority, the volume of personal data recorded in the EES will be significantly reduced, i.e., 26 data items instead of the 36 initially planned in 2013.
The mechanism will be negotiated between the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) and the national authorities responsible for applying the new regulation.
The data collected will be limited to minimum information such as last name, first name, travel document, visa references, a facial image, and four fingerprints.
The date, time, and border check location will be recorded for each visit. This data will be stored for five years and not the 181 days as proposed in 2013.
This will allow border guards and consular posts to analyse applicants' travel history when issuing new visas.
EES: privacy by design
The European Commission proposal has been drawn up based on "privacy by design" principles.
From a legal standpoint, the proposal is measured concerning the right to protection of personal data; in other words, the data collected and stored and its period of retention are strictly limited to what is necessary for the system to function and meet its objectives.
The EES will be a centralised system through which the Member States cooperate, creating a common architecture and operating rules.
Given the need for uniform processes governing border checks and access to the system, only a regulation could be chosen as a legal instrument without the possibility of adaptation to national legislation.
Secure Internet access to a web service hosted by EU-LISA will allow Third Country Nationals to check their remaining authorised length of stay at any time.
Carriers such as airlines will also be able to use this function to check whether their passengers are authorised to enter the EU.
Facial biometrics: key weapon of the EES system
The EES results in radical changes to the Schengen Borders Code as it will be used to register the biometric data of all Third Country Visitors. In contrast, only those requiring a visa are recorded in the VIS today.
In terms of biometric identifiers, under the old system, ten fingerprints were planned.
The new one combines four fingerprints and a portrait for facial recognition on entry, although either of these is acceptable for an exit.
The face is now the key to opening border crossings. The technology involved has progressed significantly over the last few years and supports traditional fingerprinting methods.
Although the European Commission no longer uses the RTP principle, it is present in all but name.
But we're jumping ahead. Here's the process.
- Four fingerprints will still be taken at the first check to verify that the traveller is not already listed in the EES or VIS.
- In the absence of a signal, the border authority will create a file, ensuring that the photograph in the Machine Readable Travel Document corresponds to the new visitor's live facial image.
- When they next cross a border, their face will determine whether or not they are let in.
Biometrics is the big winner.
Smile, you're in Europe!
The time-consuming (and falsifiable) stamps on passports will be replaced by access to the EES.
Biometrics is, therefore, the big winnerof the EES initiative. And no longer just in airports, as is currently the case.
Bustling sea terminals and land border posts will become the first clients of the famous automatedpassport controleGates currently reserved only for air travellers.
As the agency helping EU countries and Schengen associated countries manage their external borders, Frontex helps harmonise border controls across the EU.
The mission of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency is to facilitate and render more effective the application of existing and future European Union measures relating to the management of external borders.
The agency provides technical support and expertise to facilitate cooperation between border authorities in each EU country.
They have already published "Guidelines for Processing of Third‑Country Nationals through Automated Border Control."
They will play a key role in analysing and defining the capability needs in border control and supporting the Member States in developing these capabilities.
EES and the fight against identity fraud
The EES mechanism is complex and ambitious as it will make border crossing faster while also making checks and controls more robust.
Procedures for welcoming Third Country Nationals to Europe will be much-improved thanks to eGates and self-service kiosks.
In terms of migration policies and prevention of malevolent acts, it will now be possible to immediately identify people who fail to comply with entry conditions and to access their travel history.
It should also be remembered that the EES will be a powerful tool in the fight against identity fraud, particularly within the Schengen area, as each visitor will have been recorded on their arrival at an external border.
Thales and identity: more than 20 years' experience
Where do we fit in?
With its recent acquisition of Gemalto, Thales is particularly interested in the EES initiative, which is hugely dependent on biometrics and checking of travel documents.
Identification and authentication of people are two areas in which Gemalto has excelled for more than 20 years. The company contributes to more than 200 government programs in 80 countries on these issues.
It has the expertise to meet the objectives of the EES initiative, in particular through:
- Exploiting the latest technologies to authenticate travel documents, identify travellers through biometric recording operations and checks, and assess risk with access to watch lists at all border checkpoints.
- Reducing costs through process automation and optimisation while deploying new technologies to reinforce security and offer passengers greater convenience.
- Optimising border guards' tasks will supervise these devices, allowing them to focus their attention on suspicious cases.
- Reducing waiting times after registration in the EES database. This factor is not insignificant for people who live near borders and regular visitors who will devote more time to productive activities!
Self-service registration terminals and automatic or semi-automatic borders could be deployed in the next few years to speed up border checks and make access to the Schengen area more welcoming.
These automatic and biometric terminals are already deployed in the Paris airports of Orly and Charles de Gaulle (New PARAFE smart gates).
Facial recognition was implemented in 2018.
New PARAFE biometric smart gates at Roissy – September 2017
Thales has recognised expertise in integrated border management and contributes to two major migration management systems.
- Thales biometric identification systems are a central component of the American data management system IDENT(formally US-VISIT). This biographic and biometric database contains information on more than 200 million people who have entered, attempted to enter, or exited the United States of America. The USbiometricentry-exit tracking systemhas many similarities with the European EES.
- Since its inception, Thales has been a supplier to the biometric Eurodac (European Dactyloscopy) system. It's the most extensive multi-jurisdictional Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) globally, with 32 affiliated countries. The Eurodac system is a database containing the fingerprints of asylum seekers for each Member State and of people apprehended when attempting to cross borders illegally.
- To thwart attempted document fraud, Thales has developed sophisticated equipment to check the authenticity of documents by comparing the models in circulation (Identity Verification). Their validity is also checked by connecting to the Interpol database of Stolen and Lost Travel Documents (SLTD) or national watch lists.
- For border control, in addition to its biometric smart gates, Thales offers its document reader portfoliocoupled with document authentication software, fingerprint scanners,biometric authentication equipment, and software such as advanced face identification, thanks to its Gemalto Cogent portfolio, one of the pioneers in biometric technology.
Highest matching speed thanks to FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array)
Thales's biometrics technology and matching engine have led the industry in terms of matching speed and accuracy for more than 20 years.
Our FGPA based matching engine limits the environmental impacts of a data centre while offering unique advantages:
- Fast matching speed: FPGA provides low latency, massively parallel data processing with hardware acceleration
- System cost reduction: Off-loading the heavy CPUs calculations to FPGA acceleration cards lowers CPU requirements.
- Higher power efficiency: FPGA data processing consumes much less power than CPUs to achieve the same matching throughput
- Scalability: Horizontal scaling advantage by duplicating the server entities; vertical scalability advantage by increasing the number of acceleration cards in the system
- Flexibility: Reconfigurable circuits algorithms on FPGA can be improved by reprogramming without needing to buy new hardware
- Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS): No vendor lock-in, FPGA cards can be purchased from multiple vendors
To find out more, please do not hesitate to contact us.
How will the EES system work? ›
The Entry/Exit System (EES)Search for available translations of the preceding linkEN••• will be an automated IT system for registering travellers from third-countries, both short-stay visa holders and visa exempt travellers, each time they cross an EU external border.Can EU immigration see your travel history? ›
As well as clocking the length of travellers' visits, the scanners will check whether your passport has ever been flagged for immigration offences such as overstaying a visa. The European Commission says the EES will “allow an enhanced detection of stolen identities and any nationals who overstay their permitted time.”Does passport control know where you have been? ›
The date, time and place of passport control is recorded in the system.Is there border checks in Europe? ›
Yes, there are borders that divide European Union countries. However, since most EU member states are also in the Schengen Area, most of these are soft borders. There are no border checks in Europe between Schengen countries under normal circumstances.Are Schengen visas being issued 2022? ›
The Schengen Visa allows the holder to travel freely within 26 European countries, 22 of them within the European Union (EU). The standard short-stay Schengen Visa allows holders to stay within the Schengen Area for up to three months during each visit.What countries are in the EES? ›
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.What do border control see when they scan your passport? ›
The computer chip or machine readable passports do not hold your criminal records or any other personal information other than your name, place of birth, date of birth, passport number and the issue and expiry dates of the document. The chip is capable of carrying other information, but not criminal records.How do you know if Schengen visa is approved? ›
You will receive an email update when your decision has been returned to the Schengen Visa Application Centre. If you can't access email easily, or would like more detailed tracking information, you may also be able to get updates by SMS sent directly to your phone.What do passport control see on their screens EU? ›
The data collected will be limited to minimum information such as last name, first name, travel document, visa references, a facial image, and four fingerprints. The date, time, and border check location will be recorded for each visit. This data will be stored for five years and not the 181 days as proposed in 2013.How does immigration know you left the country? ›
It's important to remember to hand in your paper I-94 when leaving the United States, since that's how the U.S. government will track your departure and know that you left the country before your visa expired. You'll use information from your I-94 travel record for many immigration purposes.
Does biometric passport show travel history? ›
Yes it does. whenever your Passport is scanned at airport immigration or some other port of entry the e-chip is read and it leaves a digital entry signature of admission into X country on the immigration travel databases and shows all previous 3rd party country admissions.How do you know if your passport is flagged? ›
You don't. There is no way to tell. You don't have access to whatever databases are being used and there are no public postings of flagged passports. There are no numbers to call as that is private info and unable to passed over a phone.Are there border checks in Schengen countries? ›
Since no checks are carried out at the borders between Schengen Member States, EU countries have decided to join forces to attain the objective of improving security through efficient external border controls, while still facilitating access of persons who have a legitimate interest to enter the EU territory.Do they check visa between Schengen countries? ›
Visas and borders in the Schengen Area
There are no border checks between the Schengen countries. You only pass through border checks at the external border of the Schengen Area.
The Schengen area comprises 26 European countries. There is normally no passport control on the borders between these countries. If you have a valid visa or residence permit in one of these countries, you can also visit the other Schengen countries.Which Schengen visa is hardest? ›
According to Schengen Visa Statistic 2021, the 4 countries with the highest rejection rates were: Sweden, Norway, France, and Denmark. These 4 countries were more likely to reject a visa application than any other Schengen country.Which country gives Schengen visa easily? ›
Lithuania. This country is the easiest one to get a Schengen visa. As per the reports, officials grant visas to almost 98.7% of applicants.How do I get a 5 year Schengen? ›
5-year MEV is granted to people that have obtained and lawfully used a previous multiple-entry visa valid for at least two years within the previous three years. This visa permits you to enter 26 countries in Europe as many times as you wish, within five years, as soon as you do not violate the 90/180 days rule.Which are the 5 eyes countries? ›
FIORC was created in the spirit of the existing Five Eyes partnership, the intelligence alliance comprising Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.How many countries are in Schengen? ›
The Schengen area covers 26 countries ("Schengen States") without border controls between them.
What are the 14 Eye countries? ›
Nine Eyes countries: US, UK, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Norway. Fourteen Eyes countries: US, UK, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Sweden, Spain.What do border agents know about you? ›
Various types of tax information such as any Delinquent Tax payments. Current Job. Complete history of all border crossings – including state ports where there are border checks. Frequent traveler memberships such as Global Entry or NEXUS.Can the border track your phone? ›
Canada Border Services Agency ( CBSA ) officers are allowed to examine all goods you have with you when you cross the border. This means that just like your luggage, our officers can examine your cell phones, tablets, laptops and any other digital device you are carrying.Can border Security check your phone? ›
If asked, you are obligated to give the border agents your device and the information stored on it in a condition that allows the agent to search it. If the device is password-protected or encrypted, you may be required to give the agent the password or the encryption key, or both.Why do Schengen visas get rejected? ›
According to Schengen Visa Info, there are 12 reasons for which visa applications are rejected most frequently, including here a criminal past of the applicant, a damaged passport, the invalidity of one of the documents submitted, and insufficient financial means to support travel, etc.How many times can I apply for Schengen visa after rejection? ›
You can only make one appeal against the refusal of a Schengen Visa.What is the easiest way to get Schengen visa? ›
- Figure out which Schengen visa type you need.
- Find out where you need to apply for a Schengen visa.
- Find the most suitable time to apply for a Schengen visa.
- Book an appointment.
- Fill the Schengen visa application form.
- Gather the required documents.
- Attend the visa interview.
- Pay the visa fee.
From there, travelers in the vehicle lane get their first interaction with a human—a customs officer in a booth with a computer. The officer sees results from the first two scans—radiation and license plate—and follows up with the traveler's documents and questions about what they are bringing across the border.Which countries require biometric passport? ›
All EU countries, with the exception of Ireland and Denmark, are required to issue biometric passports as standard to all citizens. All biometric passports issued in the European Union contain digital imaging and fingerprint scan biometrics.What questions does passport Control ask? ›
- Why are you visiting the United States? ...
- Where will you be staying? ...
- Who will you be visiting? ...
- How long will you be staying in the U.S.? If you're coming in with an immigrant visa (have been approved for U.S. permanent residence), you won't likely be asked this.
Does immigration check your Whatsapp? ›
It doesn't. The best strategy is simply to assume that anything you post online will be seen and examined by immigration authorities. Some immigration attorneys may even recommend that you refrain from social media use entirely while your visa or green card application is pending.Can immigration see your Facebook? ›
Green Card Basics: Do USCIS Officials Look at My Social Media Accounts? The short answer is no, USCIS officials will no longer look through your social media accounts before they approve your green card petition.Does immigration check your Facebook? ›
They look throughout the internet, for information about the people that are applying for benefits. Don't just think that because USCIS officials said in Washington, that they don't check social media, that they don't in fact. Another way that this can become an issue is when people come through customs.What do biometric passports look like? ›
What does a biometric passport look like? The simplest way to tell if your passport is biometric is by looking at the cover. If there's a small, gold camera logo at the bottom, then it's biometric.What is the next step after biometrics for travel document? ›
Depending on the form or application you submitted that required biometric information, you might need to attend an additional interview. These interviews are usually held at a USCIS Contact Center. Sometimes, people will receive a second biometrics notice in the mail.What data is stored on a biometric passport? ›
The passport chip contains biometric information that is used to authenticate the identity of the passport holder. Your important information is printed on the data page of the passport and stored in the chip. This includes your name, date of birth and other biographic information.Why would a passport reject? ›
The principal law enforcement reasons for passport denial are a valid unsealed federal warrant of arrest, a federal or state criminal court order, a condition of parole or probation forbidding departure from the United States (or the jurisdiction of the court), or a request for extradition.What happens if you get flagged at the airport? ›
Travelers should expect to go through a body scanner and a metal detector, receive an enhanced pat-down, have your hands and belongings swabbed, and get your bags manually searched.What happens if you get turned away at the border? ›
After the denial of entry, the American border will often contact the RCMP and let them know the whereabouts of the wanted person. If the warrant is stateside, instead of receiving a refusal of entry the individual will likely be arrested on the spot.Is UK still part of EES? ›
You can find more information about the EU on its official website. The United Kingdom left the EEA when it left the EU on 31 January 2020. Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway are EEA member states, but they are not members of the European Union (EU). Switzerland is not a member of the EU or the EEA.
What is the difference between ETIAS and EES? ›
ETIAS will only be granted to risk-free travellers. In contrast, the EES will record information once the third-country national is entering or exiting the Schengen area. EES confirms that a traveller with a short-stay visa (single or double) has not already used the number of entries permitted.What is EU ESS? ›
The ESS is the partnership between the EU statistical authority, which is the Commission (Eurostat), the 'National Statistical Institutes' (NSIs) and 'Other National Authorities' (ONAs) in each EU Member State that are responsible for the development, production and dissemination of European statistics.What is EES citizen? ›
The new EES registration means that these travellers' passports will no longer be manually stamped by an immigration officer upon their entrance into and exit from any Schengen Area country.Why is UK not in Schengen? ›
Britain was never a member of the Schengen Area of borderless travel but British citizens did have the right to freedom of movement within the EU when the country was a member. This ended when the country formally left the European Union (EU) at the end of 2020.How long can you stay in Europe without a visa? ›
With a valid U.S. passport, you can stay up to 90 days for tourism or business during any 180-day period. Do not overstay! You must wait an additional 90 days before applying to re-enter the Schengen area. To stay longer than 90 days, you must have a visa.Will the 90 day rule change? ›
He said, “There will be no change in the short term, but we will carry on working on it, so that hopefully there will be something in the future.” However, it's not only the British Embassy that is keen to remove the restriction.Do I need ETIAS in 2022? ›
The European Union have confirmed the introduction of the ETIAS program that will become operational in early 2023. ETIAS stands for EU Travel Information & Authorisation System. Travellers visiting Europe from 2023 onwards will be required to obtain an approved ETIAS online prior to their departure.How do you know if Schengen visa is approved? ›
You will receive an email update when your decision has been returned to the Schengen Visa Application Centre. If you can't access email easily, or would like more detailed tracking information, you may also be able to get updates by SMS sent directly to your phone.How much does an ETIAS visa cost? ›
How Much Will an ETIAS Cost? The ETIAS will cost 7 € for applicants over 18, and will be free for applicants under the age of 18 and over the age of 70. The fee has to be paid online through a valid debit or credit card.What is the objective of the ESS? ›
It was developed to offer academics and researchers a reliable dataset that measures the attitudes and behaviours of the general population both across and within European countries. The ESS was awarded European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) status in 2013.
What is the standard of ESS? ›
The ESS Handbook for Quality Reports and the ESS Standard for Quality Reports will assist National Statistical Institutes and Eurostat in meeting the Code of Practice standards by providing recommendations for preparing comprehensive quality reports for the full range of statistical processes and their outputs.How is ESS data collected? ›
In the ESS, data has always been collected via face-to-face CAPI interviews in all participating countries.Which Schengen country will you enter first? ›
You must always enter the Schengen Area via the country which issued your visa. So, for example, if you have a Schengen visa issued by Spain, your primary destination country is considered Spain; therefore, you must enter Spain first.Is there passport control between Schengen countries? ›
The Schengen area comprises 26 European countries. There is normally no passport control on the borders between these countries. If you have a valid visa or residence permit in one of these countries, you can also visit the other Schengen countries.Can I travel to multiple Schengen countries with single entry visa? ›
With one-entry visa you can travel the Schengen area only once. It is indicated in your visa as “01”. With two-entries or multi-entries you can respectively travel to the Schengen area twice or several times during the visa validity period.